Construction Methods for Civil Engineering - Second Edition

Table Of Contents

Contents
A note to the student xiii
Icons page xv
Acknowledgements xvii
Chapter 1 Earthworks 1
Outcomes 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.1.1 Site clearance 3
1.1.2 Setting out the site 4
1.2 Definitions 4
1.3 Foundations 5
1.4 Foundation types 5
1.5 Choosing foundation types 9
1.5.1 Determining the nature and bearing capacity of soil 10
1.6 Excavations 11
1.7 Timbering 12
1.8 Basic timbering excavation terminology 13
1.9 Trench excavation safety 13
1.9.1 Causes of collapses 13
1.10 Excavating basements 17
1.10.1 Perimeter trench 17
1.10.2 Raking struts 18
1.10.3 Cofferdams 18
1.10.4 Diaphragm walls 19
1.11 Retaining walls 19
1.11.1 Gravity retaining walls 20
1.11.2 Cantilever walls 21
1.11.3 Precast concrete retaining structures 21
1.12 Construction plant 22
1.13 Excavation plant 22
1.13.1 Skimmer 23
1.13.2 Face shovel 23
1.13.3 Backactor 23
1.13.4 Dragline 23
1.13.5 Multi-purpose excavator 23
1.13.6 Trencher 24
1.14 Earth-moving plant 25
1.14.1 Bulldozers and angledozers 25
1.14.2 Scrapers 25
1.14.3 Graders 26
1.14.4 Tractor shovel 27
1.14.5 Front-end loaders 27
1.15 Compaction plant 28
1.15.1 Static weight rollers 28
1.15.2 Vibratory rollers 28
1.15.3 Pneumatic rollers 29
1.15.4 Compactor zones of application 31
1.16 Summary 31
Self-evaluation 1 32
Answers to self-evaluation 1 33
Chapter 2 Structures 35
Outcomes 35
2.1 Introduction 36
2.2 Structural forms 37
2.2.1 Reinforced concrete frame 38
2.2.2 Reinforced concrete beams 44
2.2.3 Reinforced concrete columns 47
2.2.4 Reinforced concrete slabs 48
2.3 Structural steel forms 49
2.3.1 Universal beams (UB) 50
2.3.2 Universal columns (UC) 51
2.3.3 Rolled steel joists 51
2.3.4 Angles 52
2.3.5 Channels 52
2.3.6 T-sections 53
2.3.7 Connections 54
2.4 Precast concrete forms 56
2.5 Scaffolding 58
2.6 Formwork 60
2.6.1 Materials 60
2.6.2 Foundation formwork 61
2.6.3 Column formwork 62
2.6.4 Beam formwork 62
2.6.5 Slab formwork 63
2.7 Concrete placing and compaction 64
2.7.1 Transport and placing 64
2.7.2 Compaction 66
2.8 Brickwork bonding 67
2.8.1 Common bonds 68
2.9 Summary 69
Self-evaluation 2 69
Answers to self-evaluation 2 70
Chapter 3 Road engineering 72
Outcomes 72
3.1 Introduction 73
3.1.1 Site Investigation 73
3.1.2 Route location 76
3.1.3 Road design 76
3.1.4 Setting out 77
3.1.5 Construction 77
3.1.6 Opening the road to the public 78
3.2 Road terminology 78
3.2.1 Classification of roads 79
3.3 Earthworks 80
3.3.1 Definitions 83
3.3.2 Mass haul diagrams 84
3.4 Geometric design of roads 87
3.4.1 Contours 87
3.4.2 Horizontal alignment 88
3.4.3 Vertical alignment 89
3.5 Pavement construction 93
3.5.1 Subgrade 94
3.5.2 Sub-base 95
3.5.3 Base course 95
3.5.4 Prime and tack coats 96
3.5.5 Surfacing 97
3.6 Rigid concrete pavements 99
3.7 Road drainage 102
3.8 Accommodating services 103
3.9 Summary 104
Self-evaluation 3 104
Answers to self-evaluation 3.1 105
Chapter 4 Dams 107
Outcomes 107
4.1 Introduction 108
4.2 Definitions 109
4.3 The reason dams are built 110
4.4 Dam feasibility study 111
4.4.1 Site selection 111
4.4.2 Site investigation 111
4.4.3 Detailed investigation considerations 111
4.5 Dam types 113
4.5.1 Embankment dams 113
4.5.2 Concrete dams 113
4.5.3 Primary design considerations 114
4.5.4 Secondary design considerations 114
4.6 Embankment (earth) dam design 114
4.6.1 Design components 115
4.6.2 Design considerations 116
4.6.3 Hydraulic aspects of embankment dams 118
4.6.4 General principles 119
4.6.5 Freeboard 119
4.6.6 Rip-rap 120
4.6.7 Homogeneous dams 120
4.6.8 Zoned dams 120
4.6.9 Impervious water-faced dams 121
4.6.10 Advantages of embankment dams 121
4.6.11 Disadvantages of embankment dams 121
4.7 Concrete dam design 122
4.7.1 Gravity dams 122
4.7.2 Buttress dams 123
4.7.3 Simple arch dams 124
4.7.4 Multiple arch dams 124
4.8 Dam construction 125
4.8.1 Rock-fill dams 125
4.8.2 Earth-fill embankment dams 126
4.8.3 Concrete dams 127
4.9 Water conservation 133
4.10 Summary 134
Self-evaluation 4 134
Answers to self-evaluation 4 135
Chapter 5 Bridges 137
Outcomes 137
5.1 Introduction 138
5.2 Types of bridges 139
5.2.1 Arch bridge 139
5.2.2 Suspension bridge 140
5.2.3 Cantilever bridge 140
5.2.4 Incremental launching bridge 141
5.2.5 Cable-stayed bridge 141
5.2.6 Draw bridge 142
5.3 Bridge design components 142
5.3.1 Bridge abutments 142
5.3.2 Piers 143
5.3.3 Superstructure 144
5.3.4 Bearings 144
5.3.5 Expansion joints 146
5.4 Criteria for designing a bridge 146
5.5 Bridge materials 147
5.5.1 Steel 147
5.5.2 Concrete 148
5.6 Reinforced concrete vs structural steel 149
5.7 Prestressed concrete 150
5.7.1 Prestressed concrete beam 150
5.7.2 Prestressing methods 151
5.8 Foundations 153
5.9 Summary 154
Self-evaluation 5 154
Answers to self-evaluation 5 155
Chapter 6 Tunnels 156
Outcomes 156
6.1 Introduction 157
6.2 Definitions 158
6.3 Tunnelling 158
6.3.1 Drilling and blasting 158
6.3.2 Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) 160
6.3.3 Tunnelling with shields 160
6.3.4 Pipe jacking 161
6.3.5 Freezing 161
6.3.6 Immersed tubes 162
6.3.7 Modern non-tunnel boring machine (non-TBM)
methods 162
6.3.8 Support systems and linings 163
6.4 Summary 164
Self-evaluation 6 164
Answers to self-evaluation 6 165
Chapter 7 Harbours 166
Outcomes 166
7.1 Introduction 167
7.2 Definitions 167
7.3 Functions of a harbour 168
7.4 Types of harbours 168
7.5 Harbour structures and facilities 169
7.5.1 Wharf 170
7.5.2 Bulkheads, seawalls and revetments 170
7.5.3 Jetties 172
7.5.4 Breakwater 172
7.6 Summary 173
Self-evaluation 7 173
Answers to self-evaluation 7 174
Chapter 8 Railways 175
Outcomes 175
8.1 Introduction 176
8.2 The permanent way 176
8.2.1 The function of a permanent way 177
8.3 Definitions 177
8.4 Rails 178
8.4.1 Rail properties 178
8.4.2 Rail joints 179
8.4.3 Continuous-welded rail 180
8.5 Sleepers 180
8.5.1 Concrete sleepers 181
8.5.2 Wooden sleepers 181
8.5.3 Steel sleepers 181
8.6 Fastenings 181
8.6.1 Pandrol fastenings 182
8.6.2 Fist fastening 182
8.6.3 E3131 rail to sleeper fastening 182
8.7 Ballast 182
8.8 Formation 183
8.9 Turnouts and crossings 183
8.10 Grades 184
8.10.1 Grade requirements 184
8.11 Track maintenance 184
8.12 Summary 185
Self-evaluation 8 185
Answers to self-evaluation 8 185
Chapter 9 Airports 187
Outcomes 187
9.1 Introduction 188
9.2 Definitions 189
9.3 Airport master plan 190
9.4 Airport structure 191
9.4.1 Runways and taxiways 191
9.4.2 Airport aprons 193
9.4.3 Terminal buildings 194
9.4.4 Hangar and service buildings 196
9.4.5 Airfreight buildings 196
9.4.6 Parking 196
9.5 Pavement structure 196
9.5.1 Rigid pavements 197
9.5.2 Flexible pavements 197
9.5.3 Composite pavements 198
9.6 Drainage 198
9.6.1 Surface water drainage 198
9.6.2 Drainage from runways, taxiways and aprons 198
9.6.3 Drainage from margins 199
9.6.4 Subsoil drains 199
9.7 Summary 200
Self-evaluation 9 200
Answers to self-evaluation 9 200
Chapter 10 Safety 202
Outcomes 202
10.1 Introduction 203
10.2 Machinery and Occupational Safety Act 203
10.2.1 Responsibilities of a builder in supervising building work 205
10.2.2 General safety measures the builder must carry out 205
10.3 Protective clothing 206
10.4 Workman's Compensation Amendment Act 206
10.5 National Occupational Safety Association (NOSA) 208
10.6 Summary 209
Self-evaluation 10 209
Answers to self-evaluation 10 210
Chapter 11 Drainage 211
Outcomes 211
11.1 Introduction 212
11.2 Definitions 214
11.3 Drainage materials 215
11.3.1 Vitrified clay pipes 215
11.3.2 Drains 217
11.3.3 Cast iron pipes 224
11.3.4 Pitch fibre pipes 224
11.3.5 uPVC pipes 225
11.3.6 Concrete pipes 225
11.4 Surface drainage (rain water) 229
11.4.1 Hydrological study 231
11.4.2 The hydraulic study 232
11.5 Pipe and gutter sizing 233
11.5.1 Pipe testing 234
11.5.2 Types of tests 234
11.5.3 Ventilation 235
11.6 Private sewers 235
11.7 Pipe connections 235
11.8 Soak-aways 238
11.9 Principles of good drainage 239
11.10 Sub-surface drainage 240
11.11 Channels 241
11.11.1 Open drainage channels 241
11.12 Culverts 242
11.13 Water supply and sewerage systems 243
11.13.1 Water supply 243
11.14 Summary 244
Self-evaluation 11 245
Answers to self-evaluation 11 246
Chapter 12 Labour-enhanced construction (LEC) 247
Outcomes 247
12.1 Introduction 248
12.2 Labour-enhanced construction (LEC) 248
12.2.1 Objectives 249
12.2.2 Technical feasibility of LEC 250
12.2.3 National approach to labour enhancement in
construction 250
12.2.4 Organisation 251
12.2.5 Performance 251
12.2.6 Suitability of labour enhancement 251
12.2.7 Productivity 251
12.2.8 Quality 252
12.2.9 Job design 252
12.2.10 Job design in an LEC environment 252
12.2.11 LEC in rural and urban locations 253
12.2.12 Wage rates and payment systems 253
12.2.13 Training 253
12.2.14 The pitfalls of LEC 254
12.2.15 Conclusion 256
12.3 Summary 256
Self-evaluation 12 256
Answers to self-evaluation 12 257
Index 258