Solid Waste Engineering SI Edition - Second Edition

Table Of Contents

PREFACE xv
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xix
FOREWORD xxi
CHAPTER 1
INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 1
1-1 Solid Waste in History 1
1-1-1 Economics and Solid Waste 4
1-1-2 Legislation and Regulations 6
1-2 Materials Flow 8
1-2-1 Reduction 11
1-2-2 Reuse 13
1-2-3 Recycling 13
1-2-4 Recovery 15
1-2-5 Disposal of Solid Waste in Landfills 18
1-2-6 Energy Conversion 21
1-3 The Need for Integrated Solid Waste Management 23
1-4 Special Wastes 24
1-5 Final Thoughts 25
Problems 27
CHAPTER 2
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS AND QUANTITIES 30
2-1 Definitions 30
2-2 Municipal Solid Waste Generation 33
2-3 Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics 38
2-3-1 Composition by Identifiable Items 38
2-3-2 Moisture Content 44
2-3-3 Particle Size 46
2-3-4 Chemical Composition 47
2-3-5 Heat Value 50
2-3-6 Bulk and Material Density 52
2-3-7 Mechanical Properties 53
2-3-8 Biodegradability 54
2-4 Final thoughts 56
2-5 Appendix Measuring Particle Size 57
Problems 60
CHAPTER 3
COLLECTION 63
3-1 Refuse Collection Systems 63
3-1-1 Phase 1: House to Can 64
3-1-2 Phase 2: Can to Truck 65
3-1-3 Phase 3: Truck from House to House 68
3-1-4 Phase 4: Truck Routing 72
3-1-5 Phase 5: Truck to Disposal 75
3-2 Commercial Wastes 76
3-3 Transfer Stations 76
3-4 Collection of Recyclable Materials 80
3-5 Litter and Street Cleanliness 86
3-6 Final Thoughts 90
3-7 Appendix Design of Collections Systems 91
Problems 96
CHAPTER 4
LANDFILLS 102
4-1 Planning, Siting, and Permitting of Landfills 103
4-1-1 Planning 103
4-1-2 Siting 108
4-1-3 Permitting 110
4-2 Landfill Processes 110
4-2-1 Biological Degradation 110
4-2-2 Leachate Production 113
4-2-3 Gas Production 119
4-3 Landfill Design 123
4-3-1 Liners 123
4-3-2 Leachate Collection, Treatment, and Disposal 125
4-3-3 Landfill Gas Collection and Use 133
4-3-4 Geotechnical Aspects of Landfill Design 139
4-3-5 Stormwater Management 140
4-3-6 Landfill Cap 140
4-4 Landfill Operations 143
4-4-1 Landfill Equipment 143
4-4-2 Filling Sequences 143
4-4-3 Daily Cover 145
4-4-4 Monitoring 146
4-5 Post-closure Care and Use of Old Landfills 149
4-6 Landfill Mining 151
4-7 Final Thoughts 151
Problems 156
CHAPTER 5
PROCESSING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE 160
5-1 Refuse Physical Characteristics 160
5-2 Storing MSW 162
5-3 Conveying 162
5-4 Compacting 169
5-5 Shredding 171
5-5-1 Use of Shredders in Solid Waste Processing 171
5-5-2 Types of Shredders Used for Solid Waste Processing 173
5-5-3 Describing Shredder Performance by Changes in Particle-Size Distribution 176
5-5-4 Power Requirements of Shredders 182
5-5-5 Health and Safety 186
5-5-6 Hammer Wear and Maintenance 187
5-5-7 Shredder Design 188
5-6 Pulping 191
5-7 Roll Crushing 192
5-8 Granulating 195
5-9 Final Thoughts 195
5-10 Appendix The PI Breakage Theorem 196
Problems 204
CHAPTER 6
MATERIALS SEPARATION 208
6-1 General Expressions for Materials Separation 208
6-1-1 Binary Separators 208
6-1-2 Polynary Separators 210
6-1-3 Effectiveness of Separation 211
6-2 Picking (Hand Sorting) 212
6-3 Screens 213
6-3-1 Trommel Screens 215
6-3-2 Reciprocating and Disc Screens 221
6-4 Float/Sink Separators 221
6-4-1 Theory of Operation 222
6-4-2 Jigs 229
6-4-3 Air Classifiers 230
6-4-4 Other Float/Sink Devices 241
6-5 Magnets and Electromechanical Separators 242
6-5-1 Magnets 242
6-5-2 Eddy Current Separators 245
6-5-3 Electrostatic Separation Processes 246
6-6 Other Devices for Materials Separation 247
6-7 Materials Separation Systems 250
6-7-1 Performance of Materials Recovery Facilities 253
6-8 Final Thoughts 256
Problems 258
CHAPTER 7
COMBUSTION AND ENERGY RECOVERY 263
7-1 Heat Value of Refuse 264
7-1-1 Ultimate Analysis 264
7-1-2 Compositional Analysis 265
7-1-3 Proximate Analysis 267
7-1-4 Calorimetry 268
7-2 Materials and Thermal Balances 273
7-2-1 Combustion Air 273
7-2-2 Efficiency 274
7-2-3 Thermal Balance on a Waste-to-Energy Combustor 276
7-3 Combustion Hardware Used for MSW 279
7-3-1 Waste-to-Energy Combustors 279
7-3-2 Modular Starved -Air Combustors\ 284
7-3-3 Pyrolysis and Gasification 287
7-3-4 Mass Burn versus RDF 289
7-4 Undesirable Effects of Combustion 292
7-4-1 Waste Heat 292
7-4-2 Ash 296
7-4-3 Air Pollutants 297
7-4-4 Dioxin 307
7-5 Final Thoughts 309
Problems 312
CHAPTER 8
BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES 314
8-1 Methane Generation by Anaerobic Digestion 315
8-1-1 Anaerobic Decomposition in Mixed Digesters 316
8-1-2 Potential for the Application for Anaerobic Digesters 320
8-1-3 Methane Extraction from Landfills 323
8-1-4 Potential for the Application of Methane Extraction from Landfills 323
8-2 Composting 324
8-2-1 Fundamentals of Composting 324
8-2-2 Composting Municipal Solid Waste 328
8-2-3 Potential for Composting Municipal Solid Waste 330
8-2-4 Composting Organic Waste 333
8-3 Final Thoughts 334
Problems 337
CHAPTER 9
CURRENT ISSUES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 339
9-1 Life Cycle Analysis and Management 339
9-1-1 Life Cycle Analysis 339
9-1-2 Life Cycle Management 342
9-1-3 Product Stewardship 343
9-2 Flow Control 345
9-3 Public or Private Ownership and Operation 346
9-4 Contracting for Solid Waste Facilities 347
9-5 Financing Solid Waste Facilitites 350
9-5-1 Calculating Annual Cost 352
9-5-2 Calculating Present Worth 353
9-5-3 Calculating Sinking Funds 354
9-5-4 Calculating Capital Plus O&M Costs 354
9-5-5 Comparing Alternatives 355
9-6 Hazardous Materials 355
9-7 Environmental Justice 357
9-8 The Role of the Solid Waste Engineer 357
9-9 Final Thoughts 358
9-10 Epilogue 360
Problems 361
APPENDIX A
THE LEWISBURG SOLID WASTE PROBLEM 363
A-1 Background 363
A-2 Useful Data 366
A-2-1 Transportation 366
A-2-2 Bucknell University 367
A-2-3 Existing Solid Waste Collection Program and Method of Disposal 367
A-2-4 Existing Recycling Program 368
A-2-5 Borough Organization 368
A-3 Sources, Composition, and Quantities 368
A-4 Recycling 369
A-5 Collection 371
A-6 Siting the Sanitary Landfill 373
A-7 Design of the Sanitary Landfill 374
A-8 Materials Recovery Facility 375
A-9 Waste-to-Energy (Mass Burning) 377
A-10 Technical, Economic, and Environmental Evaluation 378
APPENDIX B
BULK DENSITIES OF REFUSE COMPONENTS 379
APPENDIX C
CONVERSIONS 391
INDEX 395