Highways The locations, design, construction and maintenance of road pavements - Fifth edition

Table Of Contents

Contents About the editors xi
About the contributors xiii
Acknowledgements xxi
Abbreviations and terminology xxiii
Introduction 1
Coleman O'Flaherty
References 4
1 The road development process: plans,
specifications and contracts 5
Andrew Boyle
1.1 Overview 5
1.2 Contract forms and types 10
1.3 Tender documents 12
1.4 The tendering process 15
1.5 Construction 17
1.6 Maintenance 18
1.7 Operation 19
1.8 A note on supporting documentation 19
References 20
2 Route locations 21
Gareth Hearn
2.1 Importance of route location 21
2.2 Regional context 21
2.3 Generalised approach to route location:
a four-stage process 22
2.4 Selecting the preferred option 25
2.5 Some final comments 36
Acknowledgement 37
References 37
3 Site investigations 39
Dan Raynor
3.1 Purpose of the site investigation 39
3.2 The value of adequate site investigation 40
3.3 Key issues for site investigations 42
3.4 Risk management and the sequencing of
the ground investigation 45
3.5 The geotechnical category of a scheme 47
3.6 The desk study and site walkover 48
3.7 Planning the ground investigation 54
3.8 Undertaking the ground investigation 58
3.9 Reporting on ground investigations 70
References 72
4 Soils and soil testing for roadworks 75
Michael Maher
4.1 Soil formation and types of soil 75
4.2 Soil profiles 80
4.3 Soil particles 82
4.4 Soil identification and description in the
field 87
4.5 Soil water 95
4.6 Soil phase relationships 97
4.7 Laboratory testing of soils 100
4.8 Soil classification 125
4.9 Frost action in soils 127
Acknowledgement 132
References 132
5 Earthworks for roadworks 135
Paul Nowak
5.1 Basic considerations 135
5.2 Earthworks alignments and quantities 136
5.3 Earthworks specifications 138
5.4 Placing and compacting fill materials 144
5.5 Earthworks equipment 149
5.6 Earthworks stability 153
5.7 Building embankments on soft foundations 155
5.8 Forming the formation with or without
capping layers 159
References 161
6 Materials used in road pavements 165
Andrew Dawson
6.1 Penetration-grade refinery bitumens 165
6.2 Using bitumen at lower temperatures 173
6.3 Modified bitumens 178
6.4 Road tar 181
6.5 Cements 182
6.6 Limes 185
6.7 Conventional aggregates 185
6.8 Secondary aggregates 202
References 213
7 Soil-stabilised and hydraulically bound
mixtures used in road pavements 219
Kim Jenkins
7.1 Stabilisation concepts and objectives 219
7.2 Types of stabilisation 220
7.3 Mechanical stabilisation 221
7.4 Chemical stabilisation 223
7.5 Design for chemical stabilisation 230
7.6 Stabilisation with bitumen emulsion and
foamed bitumen 238
References 246
8 Standard asphalt mixtures used in pavement
layers 249
Michael Brennan and Alan Kavanagh
8.1 Recipe mixtures: advantages and
disadvantages 249
8.2 Aggregates in asphalts 250
8.3 Specifications currently used in the UK 254
8.4 Mixing, laying and compaction of asphalt
mixtures 269
8.5 Evaluation of conformity 272
References 273
9 Moisture control: surface and subsurface
drainage 277
Andrew Todd
9.1 Importance of road drainage 277
9.2 Steps in the drainage design process 277
9.3 Environmental impact appraisal 280
9.4 Assessing land drainage needs 280
9.5 Pre-earthworks drainage works 284
9.6 Subsurface drainage 285
9.7 Surface drainage 289
9.8 Sustainable drainage systems 295
9.9 Design for maintenance: some additional
comments 301
References 301
10 Introduction to pavement thickness design:
some basic considerations 305
David Hughes and Coleman O'Flaherty
10.1 Evolution of the road pavement 305
10.2 Component layers of modern road
pavements 310
10.3 Some factors affecting flexible pavement
design 314
10.4 Some factors affecting the design of rigid
pavements 322
10.5 Design life and service life 329
10.6 Some remarks on the approaches to flexible
pavement design 330
10.7 The AASHTO approach to flexible pavement
design 330
10.8 The analytical approach to flexible
pavement design 333
10.9 Rigid pavement design considerations 339
References 342
11 Analysis of stresses in rigid concrete slabs
and an introduction to concrete block paving 345
John Knapton
11.1 Foundations 345
11.2 Fibre-reinforced PVQ 349
11.3 Thermal and moisture-related stresses in
concrete slabs 351
11.4 Crack-control methods 357
11.5 Mechanistic rigid pavement design method 358
11.6 Concrete block paving 369
References 375
12 Current UK thickness design
recommendations for new bituminous and
concrete pavements 377
Nick Thom
12.1 Introduction 377
12.2 Derivation of current designs 378
12.3 Estimating the design traffic load 379
12.4 Materials used in road pavements 382
12.5 Foundation design 385
12.6 Upper pavement designs 392
12.7 The HA design approach: a critique 398
References 400
13 Design and construction of asphalt bases
and surfacings 403
Gordon Airey
13.1 Design objective 403
13.2 Terminology associated with bituminous
mixture design 404
13.3 The recipe approach and its limitations 408
13.4 The engineering design approach 410
13.5 Construction methods for hot-mix
bituminous materials 435
13.6 Use of low-temperature bituminous
materials 442
References 445
14 Construction concrete pavements 449
Martin O'Connell
14.1 The conventional rigid pavement
construction process 449
14.2 Using pozzolanic cements in road
construction 462
14.3 Other types of concrete pavements 464
References 467
15 Pavement asset management 469
Se├│samh Costello and Martin Snaith
15.1 Introduction 469
15.2 What is pavement asset management? 469
15.3 Pavement management levels 470
15.4 Pavement management information 470
15.5 Deterioration modelling 473
15.6 Maintenance treatment 478
15.7 Consideration of costs and benefits 480
15.8 What treatment schemes should have
priority? 482
15.9 Pavement management as a tool to aid
decision-making 485
15.10 Final comments 488
References 489
16 Structural strengthening of road pavements 491
Derek McMullen
16.1 Introduction 491
16.2 Concept of pavement strengthening 491
16.3 Structural assessment procedure 493
16.4 Use of deflection measurements 498
16.5 Use of deflection-life relationships 502
16.6 Overlay design methods for flexible
pavements 507
16.7 Concrete overlays for flexible pavements 518
16.8 Overlay design methods for concrete
pavements 520
References 524
17 Wet skid resistance 529
David Woodward
17.1 Introduction 529
17.2 Tyre-road friction 529
17.3 Contact patch 530
17.4 Road surface course parameters affecting
skid resistance 531
17.5 Measuring macro-texture 535
17.6 Measuring skid resistance 536
17.7 Effect of seasonal and environmental
factors on skid resistance 545
17.8 Wet skid resistance - what's next? 546
References 547
18 Design and use of thin surface treatments 549
Hussain Khalid
18.1 Surface treatment types and purposes 549
18.2 Surface dressings 550
18.3 Slurry seals and micro-surfacings 559
18.4 Other thin surface treatments 561
References 564
Index 567