Designing with Geosynthetics 6th Edition Vol 2

Table Of Contents

Contents
5 DESIGNING WITH GEOMEMBRANES 509
5.0 Introduction 512
5.1 Geomembrane Properties and Test Methods 513
5.1.1 Overview 513
5.1.2 Physical Properties 514
5.1.3 Mechanical Properties 524
5.1.4 Endurance Properties 543
5.1.5 Lifetime Prediction 555
5.1.6 Summary 564
5.2 Survivability Requirements 565
5.3 Liquid Containment (Pond) Liners 566
5.3.1 Geometric Considerations 568
5.3.2 Typical Cross-Sections 570
5.3.3 Geomembrane Material Selection 574
5.3.4 Thickness Considerations 575
5.3.5 Side-Slope Considerations 580
5.3.6 Runout and Anchor Trench Design 596
5.3.7 Summary 604
5.4 Covers for Reservoirs and Quasi-Solids 605
5.4.1 Overview 605
5.4.2 Fixed and Suspended Covers 605
5.4.3 Floating Covers 608
5.4.4 Quasi-Solids Covers 612
5.4.5 Complete Encapsulation 613
5.5 Water Conveyance (canal) Liners 613
5.5.1 Overview 614
5.5.2 Basic Considerations 614
5.5.3 Unique Features 619
5.5.4 Summary 623
5.6 Solid-Material (landfill) Liners 623
5.6.1 Overview 624
5.6.2 Siting Considerations and Geometry 630
5.6.3 Typical Cross Sections 631
5.6.4 Grading and Leachate Removal 636
5.6.5 Material Selection 341
5.6.6 Thickness 643
5.6.7 Puncture Protection 645
5.6.8 Runout and Anchor Trenches 648
5.6.9 Side Slope Subgrade Soil Stability 649
5.6.10 Multilined Side Slope Cover Soil Stability 649
5.6.11 Access Ramps 654
5.6.12 Stability of Solid-Waste Masses 655
5.6.13 Vertical Expansion (Piggyback) Landfills 658
5.6.14 Coal Combustion Residuals 659
5.6.15 Heap Leach Pads 660
5.6.16 Summary 661
5.7 Landfill Covers and Closures 664
5.7.1 Overview 664
5.7.2 Various Cross Sections 666
5.7.3 Gas Collection Layer 668
5.7.4 Barrier Layer 671
5.7.5 Infiltrating Water Drainage Layer 672
5.7.6 Protection (Cover Soil) Layer 673
5.7.7 Surface (Top Soil) Layer 674
5.7.8 Post Closure Beneficial Uses and Aesthetics 675
5.8 Wet (Or Bioreactor) Landfills 676
5.8.1 Background 677
5.8.2 Base Liner System 679
5.8.3 Leachate Collection System 680
5.8.4 Leachate Removal System 680
5.8.5 Filter and/or Operations Layer 680
5.8.6 Daily Cover Materials 681
5.8.7 Final Cover Issues 681
5.8.8 Exposed Geomembrane Covers 682
5.8.9 Waste Stability Concerns 683
5.8.10 Summary 683
5.9 Underground Storage Tanks 684
5.9.1 Overview 684
5.9.2 Low Volume Systems 684
5.9.3 High Volume Systems 685
5.9.4 Tank Farms 685
5.9.5 Spray-Applied Geomembranes 686
5.10 Hydraulic and Geotechnical Applications 687
5.10.1 Earth and Earth/Rock Dams 689
5.10.2 Concrete and Masonry Dams 691
5.10.3 Roller-Compacted Concrete Dams 691
5.10.4 Geomembrane Dams 692
5.10.5 Tunnels 693
5.10.6 Vertical Cutoff Walls 693
5.11 Geomembrane Seams 695
5.11.1 Seaming Methods 696
5.11.2 Destructive Seam Tests 701
5.11.3 Nondestructive Seam Tests 703
5.11.4 Seaming Commentary 708
5.12 Details and Miscellaneous Items 710
5.12.1 Connections 710
5.12.2 Appurtenances 711
5.12.3 Leak Location (After-Waste)
Placement) Techniques 712
5.12.4 Wind Uplift 714
5.12.5 Quality Control and Quality Assurance 716
5.13 Concluding Remarks 719
References 720
Problems 733
6 GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS 750
6.0 Introduction 751
6.1 GCL Properties and Test Methods 755
6.1.1 Physical Properties 755
6.1.2 Hydraulic Properties 759
6.1.3 Mechanical Properties 766
6.1.4 Endurance Properties 774
6.2 Equivalency Issues 776
6.3 Designing with GCLs 780
6.3.1 GCLs as Single Liners 780
6.3.2 GCLs as Composite Liners 783
6.3.3 GCLs as Composite Covers 787
6.3.4 GCLs on Slopes 789
6.4 Design Critique 793
6.5 Construction Methods 794
References 798
Problems 802
7 DESIGNING WITH GEOFOAM 806
7.0 Introduction 807
7.1 Geofoam Properties and Test Methods 808
7.1.1 Physical Properties 809
7.1.2 Mechanical Properties 811
7.1.3 Thermal Properties 815
7.1.4 Endurance Properties 816
7.2 Design Applications 817
7.2.1 Lightweight Fill 817
7.2.2 Compressible Inclusion 819
7.2.3 Thermal Insulation 824
7.2.4 Drainage Applications 828
8 DESIGNING WITH GEOCOMPOSITES 835
8.0 Introduction 836
8.1 Geocomposites in Separation 837
8.1.1 Temporary Erosion and Revegetation Materials 838
8.1.2 Permanent Erosion and Revegetation
Materials: Biotechnical-Related 841
8.1.3 Permanent Erosion and Revegetation
Materials: Hard Amor Related 841
8.1.4 Design Considerations 842
8.1.5 Summary 848
8.2 Geocomposites in Reinforcement 849
8.2.1 Reinforced Geotextile Composites 850
8.2.2 Reinforced Geomembrane Composites 852
8.2.3 Reinforced Soil Composites 852
8.2.4 Reinforced Concrete Composites 859
8.2.5 Reinforced Bitumen Composites 859
8.3 Geocomposites in Filtration 860
8.4 Geocomposites in Drainage 862
8.4.1 Wick (Prefabricated Vertical) Drains 863
8.4.2 Sheet Drains 875
8.4.3 Highway Edge Drains 882
8.5 Geocomposites in Containment
(Liquid/Vapor Barriers) 887
8.6 Conclusion 890
References 891
Problems 895