Designing with Geosynthetics 6th Edition Volume 1

Table Of Contents

Contents
PREFACE xiii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xv
1 OVERVIEW OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1
1.0 Introduction 2
1.1 Basic Description of Geosynthetics 4
1.1.1 Types of Geosynthetics 6
1.1.2 Functions Provided by Geosynthetics 9
1.1.3 Market Activity 9
1.2 Polymeric Materials (aka, Plastics) 11
1.2.1 Brief Overview 11
1.2.2 Polymer Identification 16
1.2.3 Polymer Formulations 30
1.3 Overview of Geotextiles 33
1.3.1 History 33
1.3.2 Manufacture 35
1.3.3 Current Uses 44
1.3.4 Sales 46
1.4 Overview of Geogrids 47
1.4.1 History 47
1.4.2 Manufacture 48
1.4.3 Current uses 50
1.4.4 Sales 51
1.5 Overview of Geonets 51
1.5.1 History 51
1.5.2 Manufacture 52
1.5.3 Current Uses 54
1.5.4 Sales 55
1.6 Overview of Geomembranes 55
1.6.1 History 67
1.6.2 Manufacture 68
1.6.3 Current Uses 70
1.6.4 Sales 71
1.7 Overview of Geosynthetic Clay Liners 67
1.7.1 History 67
1.7.2 Manufacture 68
1.7.3 Current Uses 70
1.7.4 Sales 71
1.8 Overview of Geofoam 71
1.8.1 History 71
1.8.2 Manufacture 72
1.8.3 Current Uses 74
1.8.4 Sales 74
1.9 Overview of Geocomposites 75
1.9.1 Geotextile-Geonet Composites 75
1.9.2 Geotextile - Polymer Core Composites 75
1.9.3 Geotextile - Geomembrane Composites 76
1.9.4 Geomembrane - Geogrid Composites 76
1.9.5 Geotextile - Geogrid Composites 77
1.9.6 Geosynthetic-Soil Composites 77
1.9.7 Other Geocomposites 77
1.9.8 Sales 78
1.10 Outline of Book 78
References 79
Problems 82
2 DESIGNING WITH GEOTEXTILES 88
2.0 Introduction 90
2.1 Design Methods 91
2.1.1 Design by Cost and Availability 91
2.1.2 Design by Specification 91
2.1.3 Design by Function 101
2.2 Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms 103
2.2.1 Separation 103
2.2.2 Reinforcement 104
2.2.3 Filtration 108
2.2.4 Drainage 115
2.2.5 Containment 117
2.2.6 Combined Functions 118
2.3 Geotextile Properties and Test Methods 118
2.3.1 General Comments 119
2.3.2 Physical Properties 120
2.3.3 Mechanical Properties 122
2.3.4 Hydraulic Properties 140
2.3.5 Endurance Properties 155
2.3.6 Degradation Considerations 165
2.3.7 Summary 173
2.4 Allowable Versus Ultimate Geotextile Properties 173
2.4.1 Strength Related Problems 174
2.4.2 Flow Related Problems 176
2.5 Designing for Separation 177
2.5.1 Separation Applications 177
2.5.2 Burst Resistance 178
2.5.3 Tensile Strength 180
2.5.4 Puncture Resistance 184
2.5.5 Impact (Tear) Resistance 186
2.5.6 Summary 190
2.6 Designing for Roadway Reinforcement 190
2.6.1 Unpaved Roads 190
2.6.2 Paved Roads 205
2.7 Designing for Soil Reinforcement 206
2.7.1 Geotextile-Reinforced MSE Walls 207
2.7.2 Geotextile-Reinforced MSE Slopes 263
and Embankments 230
2.7.3 Geotextile-Reinforced Foundation Soils 240
2.7.4 Geotextiles for Basal Reinforcement
between Deep Foundations 252
2.7.5 Geotextiles for Improved Bearing Capacity 253
2.7.6 Geotextiles for In-Situ Slope Stabilization 256
2.8 Designing for Filtration 262
2.8.1 Overview of Applications 263
2.8.2 General Behaviour 263
2.8.3 Geotextiles Behind Retaining Walls 264
2.8.4 Geotextiles Around Underdrains 269
2.8.5 Geotextiles Beneath Erosion
Control Structures 273
2.8.6 Geotextile Silt Fences 278
2.8.7 Summary 285
2.9 Designing for Drainage 287
2.9.1 Overview of Applications 287
2.9.2 General Behaviour 289
2.9.3 Gravity Drainage Design 290
2.9.4 Pressure Drainage Design 295
2.9.5 Capillary Migration Breaks 298
2.9.6 Summary 300
2.10 Designing for Multiple Functions 301
2.10.1 Logic for Chapter 301
2.10.2 Reflection Crack Prevention in
Pavement Overlays 301
2.10.3 Railroad Applications 315
2.10.4 Flexible Forming Systems 319
2.11 Construction Methods and
Techniques Using Geotextiles 338
2.11.1 Introduction 338
2.11.2 Geotextile Installation Survivability 339
2.11.3 Cost and Sustainability Considerations 339
2.11.4 Summary 341
References 342
Problems 355
3 DESIGNING WITH GEOGRIDS 375
3.0 Introduction 376
3.1 Geogrid Properties and Test Methods 379
3.1.1 Physical Properties 379
3.1.2 Mechanical Properties 380
3.1.3 Endurance Properties 393
3.1.4 Degradation Considerations 398
3.1.5 Allowable Strength Considerations 399
3.2 Designing for Geogrid Reinforcement 403
3.2.1 Paved Roads - Base Courses 403
3.2.2 Paved Roads - Pavements 406
3.2.3 Unpaved Roads 409
3.2.4 Slopes and Embankments 414
3.2.5 Reinforced Walls 421
3.2.6 Foundation and Basal Reinforcement 435
3.2.7 Veneer Cover Soils 443
3.2.8 Other Geogrid Applications 453
3.3 Design Critique 454
3.4 Construction Methods 455
References 457
Problems 465
4 DESIGNING WITH GEONETS 470
4.0 Introduction 471
4.1 Geonet Properties and Test Methods 473
4.1.1 Physical Properties 473
4.1.2 Mechanical Properties 473
4.1.3 Hydraulic Properties 477
4.1.4 Endurance Properties 482
4.1.5 Environmental Properties 484
4.1.6 Allowable Flow Rate 486
4.2 Designing for Geonet Drainage 490
4.2.1 Theoretical Concepts 490
4.2.2 Environmental -Related Applications 491
4.2.3 Transportation-Related Applications 498
4.3 Design Critique 502
4.4 Construction Methods 503
References 504
Problems 506