The Shell Bitumen Handbook Sixth Edition

Table Of Contents

Contents
About the principal authors xii
Foreword xiv
Acknowledgements xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Origins 3
1.2 Definition of bitumen 4
1.3 The uses of bitumen 5
1.4 Health, safety and environment 10
1.5 Other binders 11
1.6 Terminology 13
References 13
Chapter 2 Manufacture and storage of bitumens 15
2.1 The manufacture of bitumen 15
2.2 Fractional distillation of crude oil 15
2.3 Air blowing of short residues 20
2.4 Delivery, storage and handling temperatures
of bitumen 24
References 27
Chapter3 Handling, health, safety and environmental
aspects of bitumens 29
3.1 Handling and safety 29
3.2 Health aspects of bitumen 36
3.3 Bitumen and the environment 42
References 44
Chapter4 Constitution and structure of bitumens 47
4.1 Bitumen constitution 48
4.2 Bitumen structure 54
4.3 The relationship between bitumen constitution,
structure and rheology 57
4.4 The relationship between broad chemical
composition and physical properties during
the bitumen life cycle 58
References 62
Chapter 5 Specifying bitumens and checking their quality 65
5.1 Penetration grade, hard penetration grade
and viscosity grade bitumens 66
5.2 Polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) 66
5.3 Oxidised bitumens 69
5.4 Hard bitumens 70
5.5 Bitumen quality 70
5.6 The CEN bitumen specification 81
5.7 The SHRP/Superpave bitumen specification 82
References 85
Chapter 6 Routine testing and mechanical properties
of bitumens 87
6.1 Standard specification tests for bitumens 87
6.2 Temperature susceptibility - the penetration
index (PI) 92
6.3 Viscosity 93
6.4 The bitumen test data chart 99
6.5 Engineering properties of bitumen 105
6.6 Cohesion 114
References 116
Chapter 7 Rheology of bitumens 119
7.1 Rheology, deformation and flow 120
7.2 The rheology of bitumen 134
References 145
Chapter 8 Polymer modified bitumens and other
modified binders 149
8.1 The role of bitumen modifiers in asphalt
pavements 150
8.2 The modification of bitumen 153
8.3 Other modified products used for road and
industrial applications 166
8.4 Properties of PMBs and related test methods 174
8.5 Manufacture, storage and handling of PMBs 177
8.6 Performance of PMBs for road application:
Shell Cariphalte example 179
References 180
Chapter 9 Bitumen emulsions 185
9.1 A brief history of the development of bitumen
emulsions 186
9.2 The components of emulsions 187
9.3 The manufacture of bitumen emulsions 193
9.4 Storage and handling of bitumen emulsions 194
9.5 Properties of bitumen emulsions 196
9.6 Modification of bitumen emulsion properties 203
9.7 Classification and specification of bitumen
emulsions 208
9.8 Uses of bitumen emulsions 209
9.9 Trends and new developments in the use of
Bitumen emulsions 214
9.10 Further information on bitumen emulsions 214
References 214
Chapter 10 Aggregates in asphalts 217
10.1 Introduction 217
10.2 Origin and type 218
10.3 Aggregate processing 224
10.4 Coarse and fine aggregates 231
10.5 Filler aggregate 250
10.6 Assuring aggregate quality 255
References 256
Chapter 11 Choosing asphalts for use in flexible
pavement layers 261
11.1 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in Europe 261
11.2 UK pavements 264
11.3 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in the UK 267
11.4 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in France 277
11.5 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in
Germany 282
11.6 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in the
USA 284
11.7 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in India 287
11.8 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in China 289
References 290
Chapter 12 Design of asphalt mixtures 295
12.1 A very brief history of asphalt mixture design
methods 295
12.2 Mixture volumetrics 297
12.3 Grading 304
12.4 Mixture design methods 311
References 342
Chapter 13 Design of flexible pavements 347
13.1 Introduction 347
13.2 Background to the design of pavements 351
13.3 The importance of stiffness 353
13.4 The elements of a flexible pavement 356
13.5 Stages involved in pavement design 360
13.6 Pavement designs in the USA 366
13.7 Empirical and analytical pavement design 368
13.8 Analytical pavement design 368
13.9 The contribution of Shell Bitumen to the
development of pavement design 369
13.10 Example pavement designs using SPDM-PC 372
13.11 A glimpse of the future for pavement design 374
References 375
Chapter 14 Asphalt production plants 379
14.1 Introduction 379
14.2 Types of mixing plants 380
14.3 Plant capacities 402
14.4 Additive systems 403
14.5 Cold mix plants 404
14.6 Warm mix plants 406
14.7 Asphalt plant control 407
14.8 Sampling 410
References 412
Chapter 15 Transport, laying and compaction of
asphalts 413
15.1 Transport 413
15.2 Preparatory works 413
15.3 Application of bond coats 415
15.4 Delivery and discharge 417
15.5 Pavers 418
15.6 Laying in adverse weather conditions 423
15.7 Machine laying 424
15.8 Hot-on-hot paving 427
15.9 Hand laying 427
15.10 Layer thickness and surface regularity 429
15.11 Joints 430
15.12 Chipping of hot rolled asphalt surface course 434
15.13 Installing gussasphalt 435
15.14 Compaction 437
15.15 Application of grit to surface courses 443
15.16 Opening to traffic 443
15.17 Specification and quality control 444
References 444
Chapter 16 Laboratory testing of asphalts 447
16.1 Fundamental tests 449
16.2 Simulative tests 459
16.3 Empirical 467
16.4 Determination of recovered bitumen properties 470
References 474
Chapter 17 Properties of asphalts 479
17.1 Stiffness of asphalts 479
17.2 Deformation of asphalts 486
17.3 Fatigue characteristics of asphalts 491
17.4 Failure theories for cracking in asphalt layers 496
References 499
Chapter 18 Influence of binder properties on the
performance of asphalts 503
18.1 Introduction 503
18.2 The influence of binder properties during
construction 508
18.3 The influence of binder properties on the
performance of asphalts in service 511
References 542
Chapter 19 Adhesion of bitumen and moisture damage
in asphalts 549
19.1 Thermodynamic principles of adhesion
cohesion and surface free energy 550
19.2 Factors affecting bitumen-aggregate adhesion 552
19.3 Disbonding mechanisms in asphalts 553
19.4 Methods of measuring and assessing
adhesion between bitumen and aggregates
and moisture damage 557
19.5 Improving bitumen-aggregate adhesion 567
References 569
Chapter 20 Durability of bitumens and asphalts 573
20.1 Bitumen hardening 574
20.2 Hardening of bitumen during storage,
mixing and in service 576
20.3 Bitumen ageing tests 586
References 588
Chapter 21 Surface treatments 591
21.1 Surface dressing 591
21.2 Slurry surfacing/microsurfacing 621
21.3 High friction surfaces 635
21.4 Grouted macadams 636
References 640
Chapter 22 Alternative asphalts 643
22.1 Asphalts produced using foamed bitumen 643
22.2 Warm mix asphalts 651
22.3 Shell Thiopave, a sulfur-based asphalt modifier
for enhanced asphalt road applications 654
22.4 Recycling of asphalt pavements 666
22.5 Modification of bitumen by the addition of
rubber 671
References 680
Chapter 23 Certification of bitumens and asphalts 687
23.1 The regulatory framework 688
23.2 Standards 691
23.3 Certification for products and systems outside
the scope of CEN harmonised standards 694
23.4 Requirements for product certification 697
References 700
Chapter 24 Other important uses of bitumens and
asphalts 703
24.1 Bitumen in roofing applications 704
24.2 Bituminous adhesive for use with pavement
markers 714
24.3 Airfield pavements 716
24.4 Conventional and high speed railway
applications 721
24.5 Bridges 726
24.6 Recreational areas 728
24.7 Motor racing tracks, including Formula 1 tracks 729
24.8 Vehicle testing circuits 730
24.9 Hydraulic applications 730
24.10 Coloured surface courses and surface
treatments 732
24.11 Asphalt kerbs 735
References 735
Appendix 1 Physical constants of bitumens 739
Appendix 2 Conversion factors for viscosities 743
Appendix 3 Blending charts and formulae 744
Appendix 4 Calculation of bitumen film thickness in an
asphalt 748
Appendix 5 Bitumen product standards used across the
world 750
Appendix 6 Asphalt product standards used across the
world 754
Appendix 7 Reporting asphalt compositional analysis
results 756
Appendix 8 Volumetrics symbols 759
Index 761