Hydraulics for Civil Engineers - ICE Textbooks

Table Of Contents

Contents Preface vii
List of symbols ix
1 Pressure in liquids: its effects and measurement 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Density and pressure within a liquid 1
1.3 Measurement of pressure 3
1.4 Forces on immersed surfaces 5
1.5 Buoyancy and flotation 12
References 17
2 Conservation equations applied to flow to liquid in pipes 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Continuity equation 20
2.3 Momentum equation 21
2.4 Bernoulli (or Energy) equation 26
References 34
3 Real flow in pipes 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Viscosity of fluids 35
3.3 Laminar and turbulent flow 37
3.4 Modification of Bernoulli equation for head loss due to friction 39
3.5 Boundary layers in turbulent flow 44
3.6 Derivation of values and use in design charts 44
References 50
Further reading 51
4 Turbines and pumps 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Turbines 53
4.3 Pumps 59
4.4 Cavitation in turbines and pumps 63
References 63
Further reading 64
5 Steady uniform flow in open channels 65
5.1 Introduction 65
5.2 Sustainable design of river channels 65
5.3 Basic definitions 67
5.4 Discharge equations 70
5.5 Velocity variation over channel cross-section 74
5.6 Most economically efficient section 74
5.7 Specific energy 76
References 81
Further reading 82
6 Open channel flow with varying conditions 83
6.1 Changes to flow regime 83
6.2 Examples of flow changes 87
6.3 Flow rate measurement based on changes in section 96
6.4 Gradually varied flow 99
References 103
7 Hydrology of river flow 105
7.1 Introduction 105
7.2 Return period approach 105
7.3 Hydrograph approach 111
References 116
8 Hydrology of surface water drainage 119
8.1 Introduction 119
8.2 Short duration rainfall intensity 119
8.3 Hydraulic design of surface water sewers 121
8.4 Sustainable drainage systems 128
8.5 Difference between greenfield and development runoff 131
References 133
Further reading 133
9 Coastal hydraulics 135
9.1 Introduction 135
9.2 Sea level records 135
9.3 Mean sea level 136
9.4 Astronomical tides 136
9.5 Meteorological effects, including surges 138
9.6 Waves 141
References 152
Further reading 152
10 Dimensional analysis 153
10.1 Introduction 153
10.2 Dimensions 153
10.3 Dimensional equations 154
10.4 Dimensional analysis 156
10.5 Similarity 159
10.6 Use of dimensionless numbers in model scaling 160
References 164
Further reading 164
11 Two-dimensional ideal flow 165
11.1 Introduction 165
11.2 Theoretical basis 165
11.3 Uniform straight line flow 176
11.4 Sources 177
11.5 Sinks 179
11.6 Free vortex 179
11.7 Forces vortex 183
11.8 Combination of flow 185
References 188
Index 189