Engineering Hydrology - Fourth Edition

Table Of Contents

Contents
Preface to the Fourth Edition ix
Note on 'Solutions' booklet xii
Acknowledgements x
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Allied sciences 1
1.2 The hydrological cycle 1
1.3 Inventory of Earth's water 3
1.4 Hydrology as applied in engineering 3
2 Meteorological Data 5
2.1 Weather and climate 5
2.2 Humidity 6
2.3 Temperature 8
2.4 Radiation 9
2.5 Wind 9
2.6 Precipitation 10
2.7 Forms of precipitation other than rain 15
2.8 The extension and interpretation of data 15
2.9 The meteorological section of the Flood Studies Report (1975) 27
2.10 Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) 34
References 37
Problems 38
3 Evaporation and Transpiration 42
3.1 Meteorological factors 42
3.2 Transpiration 43
3.3 Methods of estimating evaporation 44
3.4 Evaporation from land surfaces using Penman's E o value 51
3.5 Thornthwaite's formulae for evapotranspiration 51
3.6 Direct measurement of evaporation by pans 54
3.7 Consumptive use 55
References 62
Problems 63
4 Infiltration and Percolation 66
4.1 Infiltration capacity of soil 66
4.2 Factors influencing 66
4.3 Methods of determining infiltration capacity 69
4.4 Soil moisture 72
References 80
Problems 81
5 Groundwater 83
5.1 The occurrence of groundwater 83
5.2 Factors of influence 84
5.3 Groundwater flow 88
5.4 The abstraction of groundwater 94
5.5 The yield of wells 96
5.6 Test pumping analysis 105
References 109
Problems 109
6 Surface Runoff 111
6.1 The engineering problem 111
6.2 Catchment characteristics and their effects on runoff 112
6.3 Climatic factors 117
6.4 Rainfall/runoff correlation 119
6.5 Flow rating curves: their determination, adjustment and
extension 120
6.6 Volume and duration of runoff 136
6.7 Estimation of mean flow 141
References 143
Problems 145
7 Hydrograph Analysis 150
7.1 Components of a natural hydrograph 150
7.2 The contribution of baseflow to stream discharge 151
7.3 Separation of baseflow and runoff 153
7.4 Evaluation of baseflow 157
7.5 The unit hydrograph 158
7.6 Unit hydrographs of various durations 160
7.7 The unit hydrograph as a percentage distribution 163
7.8 Derivation of the unit hydrograph 165
7.9 Unit hydrographs from complex or multi-period storms 165
7.10 The instantaneous unit hydrograph 173
7.11 Synthetic unit hydrograph 174
7.12 Synthetic unit hydrographs from catchment characteristics
by the FSR method 179
7.13 The application of rain to unit hydrographs 186
References 190
Problems 191
8 Flood Routing 198
8.1 Introduction 198
8.2 The storage equation 198
8.3 Reservoir routing 200
8.4 Routing in a river channel 203
8.5 Graphical routing methods 211
8.6 Synthetic unitgraphs from flood routing 213
References 220
Problems 220
9 Hydrological Forecasting 225
9.1 Introduction 225
9.2 Flood formulae 226
9.3 Frequency analysis 228
9.4 The FSR method of predicting
catchment 244
9.5 Synthetic data generation 248
9.6 The cyclical nature of hydrological phenomena 249
References 250
Problems 252
10 Urban Hydrology 261
10.1 Introduction 261
10.2 The use of the Rational Method 261
10.3 Hydrograph methods 265
References 266
11 International Flood Frequency Growth Curves 268
11.1 World Flood Studies 268
11.2 General conclusions 273
References 273
12 Design Criteria 274
12.1 Risk analysis 274
12.2 Choice of design return period by consideration of design
life and probability of encountering design flow during
this life 275
12.3 Choice of a design value of a rare event 276
References 276
Appendix A. Rainfall and soil characteristics of the British Isles 278
Appendix B. Typical values of Manning's n and Chezy's C 339
Answers to Problems 340
Index 343
Appendix C. Nomogram for determining evaporation Eo from a free
water surface according to the Penman equation