Principles of Pavement Engineering - Second Edition

Table Of Contents

Contents Foreword x1
Acknowledgements xiii
Part 1: Principles and practicalities 1
1 Introduction 3
1.1 The long history of the paved highway 3
1.2 Materials for pavement construction 4
1.3 Typical pavement structures 8
1.4 Financial cost 10
1.5 Sustainability and the environment 11
1.6 Summary 13
References 13
2 Pavement applications 15
2.1 High-speed highways 15
2.2 Urban roads 18
2.3 Estate roads 20
2.4 Rural roads 21
2.5 Pedestrian areas and cycle paths 22
2.6 Car, coach and lorry parks 22
2.7 Ports and heavy industrial pavements 24
2.8 Airfield pavements 25
2.9 Summary 28
References 28
3 Construction issues 29
3.1 Unbound material 29
3.2 Hydraulically-bound material 33
3.3 Asphalt 39
3.4 Summary 45
References 45
4 Basic engineering concepts 47
4.1 Basic quantities 47
4.2 Mechanical properties 48
4.3 Thermal properties 52
Reference 52
5 Conclusion to Part 1 53
Part 2: Materials 55
6 Unbound material 57
6.1 Shear strength 57
6.2 Stiffness 71
6.3 Deformation under repeated load 83
6.4 Permeability, suction, plasticity and frost 85
6.5 Summary 97
References 97
7 Hydraulically-bound material 101
7.1 Strength 101
7.2 Fatigue 107
7.3 Durability 108
7.4 Thermal properties 110
7.5 Stiffness 111
7.6 Mixture design 116
7.7 Summary 122
References 123
8 Asphalt 125
8.1 Bitumen 125
8.2 The mechanics of asphalt behaviour 137
8.3 Asphalt stiffness 140
8.4 Fracture and fatigue of asphalt 144
8.5 Permanent deformation 148
8.6 Durability 151
8.7 Mixture design 153
8.8 Summary 164
References 164
9 Reinforcing products 169
9.1 Unbound material reinforcement 169
9.2 Hydraulically-bound material reinforcement 172
9.3 Asphalt reinforcement 172
9.4 Summary 174
References 174
10 Conclusion to Part 2 175
Part 3: Design 177
11 Approaches to design 179
11.1 Methods, manuals and guides 179
11.2 Engineering principles 184
11.3 Whole-life cost 184
11.4 Sustainability 186
11.5 Summary 191
References 191
12 Traffic loading 193
12.1 Traffic variables 193
12.2 Determining design traffic 199
12.3 Summary 201
References 201
13 Design against rutting 203
13.1 Subgrade deformation 203
13.2 Deformation in granular layers 211
13.3 Deformation in asphalt 216
13.4 Summary 219
References 219
14 Design against cracking - concrete pavements 221
14.1 Cracking in pavement quality concrete 221
14.2 Reinforced concrete 231
14.3 Summary 234
References 235
15 Design against cracking - asphalt pavements 237
15.1 Low-temperature cracking 237
15.2 Wheel-path cracking 239
15.3 Pavement edge design 248
15.4 Design with reinforced asphalt 249
15.5 Summary 250
References 250
16 Design against cracking - composite pavements 253
16.1 Cracking in hydraulically-bound base 253
16.2 Reflective cracking 258
16.3 Summary 263
References 263
17 Design for durability 265
17.1 The effect of time 265
17.2 The effect of water 266
17.3 The effect of frost 270
17.4 The pothole phenomenon 271
17.5 Summary 273
References 274
18 Non-standard pavements 275
18.1 Cold-mix asphalt pavements 275
18.2 Grouted macadam pavements 276
18.3 Sandwich construction 278
18.4 Drainage pavements 279
18.5 Block paving 282
18.6 Summary 284
References 285
19 Pavement surface design 287
19.1 Achieving good ride quality 287
19.2 Material strength and contribution to
pavement strength 289
19.3 Achieving skidding resistance 292
19.4 Reducing spray 295
19.5 Low-noise pavements 295
19.6 Summary 296
References 297
20 Design reliability 299
20.1 Selecting the appropriate reliability level 299
20.2 A statistical view of design inputs 300
20.3 Design assurance 304
20.4 Summary 306
References 306
21 Conclusion to Part 3 307
Part 4: Maintenance 309
22 Pavement evaluation 311
22.1 Visual condition surveys 311
22.2 Profile surveys 315
22.3 Skid resistance surveys 317
22.4 Cores and trial pits 318
22.5 Ground-penetrating radar 322
22.6 Deflection surveys 324
22.7 Pavement evaluation planning 330
22.8 Summary 337
References 337
23 Diagnosis 339
23.1 Pavements with an asphalt surface 339
23.2 Pavements with a concrete surface 343
23.3 Other payment types 346
Summary 347
24 Prognosis 349
24.1 Substantially intact asphalt pavements 349
24.2 Substantially intact concrete pavements 352
24.3 Failing asphalt pavements 352
24.4 Failing concrete pavements 355
24.5 The effect of debonding 356
24.6 Summary 358
References 358
25 Regular treatments and repairs 359
25.1 Sealing 359
25.2 Reprofiling 362
25.3 Local repairs 362
25.4 Surface treatments 366
25.5 Summary 370
Reference 370
26 Rehabilitation design 371
26.1 Drainage improvement 371
26.2 Overlays/inlays to asphalt pavements 375
26.3 Overlays/inlays to concrete pavements 382
26.4 Hot in situ recycling of asphalt 387
26.5 Cold in situ recycling 389
26.6 Summary 393
References 393
27 Pavement management 395
27.1 Practical constraints 395
27.2 Project-level optimisation 397
27.3 Network-level optimisation 400
27.4 Summary 402
28 Conclusion to Part 4 403
Index 405