Highway Maintenance Handbook

Table Of Contents

Contents
1 Introduction, by Ken Atkinson 1
1.1 The highway scene, 1
1.2 Relevant facts, 4
1.3 Definition of highway maintenance, 5
1.4 Importance of records and monitoring, 7
1.5 New techniques and materials, 8
1.6 Usage of the highway, 9
1.7 funding of highway maintenance, 9
1.8 Monitoring road conditions, 12
1.9 Budgets and planning, 15
1.10 Working arrangements and resources, 15
1.11 Sources of work, 16
1.12 Staffing, 16
1.13 Measurement of performance, 17
1.14 Maintenance administration, 18
1.15 Impact of Public Utility Company works, 18
References, 19
2 High profile maintenance, by Ken Atkinson 21
2.1 General, 21
2.2 Routine maintenance, 27
2.3 Cleansing, 28
2.4 Operational needs and problems, 29
2.5 Legal aspects of cleansing, 29
2.6 Cleansing needs, 30
2.7 Cleansing methods and costs, 30
2.8 Drainage, 32
2.9 Categories of drainage, 33
2.10 Legal aspects of drainage, 34
2.11 Water on the highway, 34
2.12 Gully cleansing, 35
2.13 Pipework, 35
2.14 Street furniture, 36
2.15 highway landscaping, 37
2.16 Legal aspects of landscaping, 37
2.17 Grass cutting, and the trimming of trees and
hedges, 38
2.18 Costs of grass cutting, 39
2.19 Guard railing and fences, 40
2.20 Other sources of complaint, 41
2.21 Special highway problems, 41
References, 42
3 Carriageway maintenance 45
Part 1. Concrete pavements, by Alan Lilley 46
3.1 Background, 46
3.2 Stresses, 50
3.3 Cracking, 53
3.4 Surface water spray, skidding resistance and
surface damage, 58
3.5 Arris spalling, 59
3.6 Slab rocking and settlement, 61
3.7 Loss of riding quality, 62
3.8 Trench openings, 62
3.9 Joint sealant failure, 62
3.10 Overlays, 64
3.11 Repair methods, 65
3.12 Thin bonded toppings, 66
3.13 Spalled joints, 72
3.14 Cracking of slabs, 73
3.15 Rocking and settled slabs, 77
3.16 Pavement overlays, 81
3.17 Trench openings, 87
3.18 Joint sealing, 88
3.19 Full depth reconstruction, 91
3.20 Summary, 93
Part 11. Bituminous pavements, by Bill Heather 93
3.21 Historical use of flexible construction, 93
3.22 Definitions used in highway works, 95
3.23 Basic materials, 99
3.24 Stages of maintenance, 101
3.25 Pavement design, 101
3.26 Coated materials, 104
3.27 Deterioration of pavements, 109
3.28 Temporary road surfaces, 114
3.29 Repair types and methods, 114
3.30 Skid resistance - anti-skid surfacing, 118
3.31 Surface dressing, 119
3.32 Slurry seal and micro-surfacing, 125
3.33 Resurfacing and overlays, 126
3.34 Reconstruction, 130
3.35 Repave, 130
3.36 Recycling, 130
3.37 Over branding, 131
3.38 Bituminous overlays of cement-bound
materials, 131
3.39 Cost effectiveness and cost comparisons, 133
3.40 Future development, 134
Acknowledgements, 136
References, 136
Bibliography, 139
4 Footways, by Derek Pearson 141
4.1 Introduction, 141
4.2 Development of footways, 142
4.3 Objective and purpose of footways, 144
4.4 Legal aspects, 145
4.5 Management system, 146
4.6 Standards, inspection and rating, 150
4.7 Types of footway and loading, 164
4.8 Kerbs and edge restraint, 167
4.9 Footway surfacings, 175
4.10 Causes of deterioration, 189
4.11 Remedial works, 196
4.12 Comparative economics, 204
4.13 Personal injury accidents on footways, 209
4.14 Future developments, 215
Acknowledgements, 217
Sources of further information, 217
References, 217
5 Street lighting, and illuminated traffic signs, by Bert Zuman 221
5.1 Legal aspects, 221
5.2 Responsibility for street lighting and
illuminated sign maintenance, 223
5.3 Maintenance functions, 223
5.4 Management of street lighting maintenance, 224
5.5 Definition of street lighting, 224
5.6 Inventory of street lighting and illuminated
sign equipment, 228
5.7 Energy costs, 229
5.8 Performing lighting maintenance, 231
5.9 Preparation of maintenance contracts, 232
5.10 General maintenance, 234
5.11 Materials, 243
5.12 Plant, 249
5.13 Traffic safety and control, 250
5.14 Electrical safety in public lighting operations, 250
5.15 Planned replacement of lighting equipment, 251
Acknowledgements, 252
References, 252
6 Traffic signal maintenance, by Ken Huddart 257
6.1 Special maintenance requirements of traffic
signals, 257
6.2 Organization of signal maintenance, 259
6.3 Traffic signal controllers, 264
6.4 Signal aspects, 265
6.5 Signal lamps, 266
6.6 Vehicle detectors, 267
6.7 Interconnections, 270
6.8 Computer maintenance, 271
6.9 Physical damage, 272
6.10 Legal issues, 273
6.11 Closed-circuit television, 274
6.12 Motorway control systems, 275
6.13 Traffic signals at roadworks, 275
References, 276
7 Aids to movement, by Ken Atkinson 279
7.1 General considerations, 279
7.2 Road markings, 282
7.3 Materials for lining and road markings, 283
7.4 Removal of road markings, 288
7.5 Inspection of markings, 290
7.6 Skid resistance of markings, 290
7.7 Reflecting road studs, 292
7.8 Road signs, 292
7.9 Road cones and lamps, 294
7.10 Sign amendment, 294
7.11 Minor works signing, 295
7.12 Pedestrians and other groups, 295
7.13 Other highway measures, 298
Acknowledgements, 299
References, 299
8 Road assessment and management systems, 301
by Len Parker
8.1 Budget considerations, 303
8.2 Funding, 314
8.3 Standards, 316
8.4 Appraisal, 318
8.5 Information Technology - essential considerations, 318
8.6 Pavement assessment - an overview, 322
8.7 Visual inspection techniques, 324
8.8 Objective systems, 326
8.9 Other measurement information in MMS, 342
8.10 Data presentation and location referencing, 343
8.11 Staffing, 351
8.12 Costings, 353
8.13 Future development and concluding comments, 354
Acknowledgements, 355
References, 355
Bibliography, 359
9 Accident prevention, by David Powell 365
9.1 Scale of the problem, 365
9.2 Accident reporting and classification, 366
9.3 Accident statistics and trends in
Great Britain, 370
9.4 Distribution of accidents by area and road
classification, 375
9.5 Casualties by class of road user and vehicle(s)
involved, 378
9.6 Lighting, road surface and weather
conditions, 382
9.7 Contributory and causative factors in traffic
accidents, 382
9.8 Accident investigations, 384
9.9 Road user factors, 386
9.10 Vehicle factors, 388
9.11 Road environment factors, 388
9.12 Potential and means for accident reduction, 392
9.13 Legal aspects, 399
9.14 Future developments, 402
References, 405
10 Winter maintenance, by Derek Pearson 409
10.1 Introduction, 409
10.2 Legal position, 414
10.3 Policies, 416
10.4 Budgets, 420
10.5 Treatment routes, 425
10.6 Weather information and forecasting, 426
10.7 Materials, 433
10.8 Personnel, 438
10.9 Vehicles and plant, 440
10.10 Operational aspects, 448
10.11 Competition in winter maintenance, 455
10.12 Future developments, 457
Acknowledgements, 459
References, 459
Bibliography, 460
11 Maintenance of highway structures, by Ken Atkinson 463
11.1 Objectives, 463
11.2 Registration and records, 464
11.3 Finance, 466
11.4 Legal aspects relating to highway structures, 469
11.5 Abnormal indivisible loads, 476
11.6 Staffing levels, 479
11.7 Access, 479
11.8 Inspection, 481
11.9 Monitoring, 487
11.10 Assessment, 487
11.11 Measurement of works, 488
11.12 Expansion joints and bearings, 490
11.13 Waterproofing, 497
11.14 Protective treatments, 501
11.15 Fire risk, 506
11.16 Investigatory methods, 507
11.17 Cracks, 508
11.18 Welding, 510
11.19 Drainage of structures, 512
11.20 Tunnels and underpasses - special problems, 513
11.21 Pedestrian subways, 516
11.22 Rivers structures, 519
11.23 Bridge parapets, 519
11.24 Footbridges, 520
11.25 Sign gantries, 521
11.26 Retaining walls, 522
11.27 Bailey bridges, 523
11.28 Health and safety, 524
Acknowledgement, 526
References, 526
Appendices 529
The Authors 543
Index 547