Numbers & Needs - Local Government - Civil Engineering the critical profession for service delivery

Table Of Contents

Foreword v

Acknowledgements vii

Glossary xi

List of figures and tables xvii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

Executive summary 3
Introduction 3
Overview on local government 4
The past 5
The present 9
The future 19
It is time 29
Conclusions 29
Recommendations 30
Notes 31

PART I: INTRODUCTION 33

Scope 35
Note 36

Chapter 1 – Background and purpose 37
1.1 Introduction 37
1.2 Numbers and needs 37
1.3 ENERGYS 37
1.4 The infrastructure report card 37
1.5 The status quo 38
1.6 Reinventing local government 38
1.7 Outcomes 40
1.8 Who should read this book? 40
1.9 Research input 41
1.10 Reference datasets 41
1.11 Desktop research and references 41
Notes 42



PART II: PAST AND PRESENT – LESSIONS LEARNT 43

Chapter 2 – Structures and capacity of the past 45
2.1 Origins 45
2.2 Topology and population served 46
2.3 Services provided 49
2.4 The number of civil engineering staff 50
2.5 Sources of funding 50
2.6 Functions in engineering departments 51
2.7 Structures 51
2.8 Qualifications and experience 51
2.9 Processes 55
2.10 Governance and decision making 62
2.11 Training 71
Conclusions 73
Recommendations 73
Notes 73


Chapter 3 – Structures and capacity today 75
3.1 The new environment 75
3.2 Technology and population served 77
3.3 Services provided 78
3.4 The number of civil engineering staff 79
3.5 Sources of funding 82
3.6 Functions in engineering departments 83
3.7 Structures 84
3.8 Qualifications and experience 84
3.9 Processes 87
3.10 Governance and decision making 96
3.11 Training 118
Conclusions 120
Recommendations 121
Notes 121

Chapter 4 – The consequences of reduced engineering capacity 123
4.1 Service delivery 125
4.2 Loss of institutional knowledge 128
4.3 Uncoordinated housing developments 128
4.4 New works 128
4.5 Operations and maintenance 137
Conclusions 150
Recommendations 150
Notes 150

PART III: THE FUTURE – IDEAS SHARED 153

Chapter 5 – Structures and capacity for the future 155
5.1 The challenges 155
5.2 Topology and population served 156
5.3 Services provided 159
5.4 The number of civil engineering staff 162
5.5 Functions in engineering departments 172
5.6 Structures 173
5.7 Qualifications and experience 184
5.8 Processes 191
5.9 Governance and decision making 201
5.10 Training 231
Conclusions 249
Recommendations 249
Notes 252

Chapter 6 – Thinking out of the box 257
6.1 Not business as usual 257
6.2 Water 258
6.3 Sanitation 262
6.4 Roads and transport 272
6.5 Solid waste and cleansing 277
6.6 Energy 281
6.7 Life cycle costing 284
6.8 Revenue enhancement 285
6.9 Job creation 295
6.10 Local economic development 303
Conclusions 312
Recommendations 312
Notes 314

PART IV: CONCLUSIONS 319

Chapter 7 – Numbers and needs 321
7.1 Introduction 321
7.2 Vacancies 321
7.3 How many needed? 322
7.4 Staff movements 329
7.5 The numbers to be attracted and retained 332
7.6 The turnaround strategy 337
Conclusion 348
Recommendations 349
Notes 349

Chapter 8 – The way forward 351
Notes 354

Bibliography 355

Index 361