Engineering Geology of Southern Africa - ABA Brink Volume 1,2,3,4

Table Of Contents

Contents Volume 1
Foreword by Robert F. Legget 7
List of Case histories 11
List of figures 13
List of Tables 18
Preface and acknowledgements 19

Chapter 1 23
Introduction
Structure of the Basement Complex - Stratigraphic units - Geomorphic history of southern
Africa - Climate - Terrain units - Soil Profiles

Chapter 2 35
Basement Complex: Metamorphic rocks of Swazian and later erathems
Introduction - Stratigraphy - Engineering characteristics

Chapter 3 56
Basement Complex: Granites
Distributions and lithology - Development of residual soil - Collapsible grain structure -
Prediction of the presence of collapsible grain structure in residual granitic soil - Foundation
treatment for structures on residual granite with a collapsible grain structure - The problem of
core-stones within residual granite - Pseudokarst phenomena

Chapter 4 81
Witwatersrand Supergroup: West Group
Distribution and structure of the supergroup - Stratigraphy of the West Rand Group
Geotechnical considerations - Deep basements

Chapter 5 103
Witwatersrand Supergroup: Central Rand Group
Geology of the gold-bearing strata on the central Witwatersrand - Mining subsidence -
Restrictions on development - Factors influencing mining subsidence - Types of mining subsi-
dence experienced on the central Witwatersrand - Earth tremors - Use of quartzites as
aggregates for concrete and roads - Building on mine waste materials

Chapter 6 161
Ventersdorp Supergroup
Stratigraphy and distribution - Engineering characteristics and residual soils - Concrete aggre-
gate

Chapter 7 179
Transvaal Sequence: Black Reef Quartzite Formation and Chuniespoort Group
Griqualand West Sequence: Campbell and Griquatown Groups
Introduction - Transvaal Stratigraphy - Griqualand West stratigraphy - Environment of
deposition - Early history of karst phenomena and foundation problems on the dolomites -
Recent occurrences of sinkholes and subsidences in the dolomites of the Pretoria area - The Far
West Rand - Weathering of dolomite - Mechanism of sinkhole formation - Mechanism of doline
formation - Delineation of potential sinkhole and doline areas by geophysical exploration -
Delineation of subsurface features using thermal infrared imagery - Protective measures -
Engineering uses of dolomite

Chapter 8 249
Transvaal Sequence: Pretoria Group
Griqualand West Sequence: Postmasburg Group
Transvaal stratigraphy - Griqualand West stratigraphy - Engineering characteristics of the
sedimentary rocks - Residual soils developed on the sedimentary rocks - Residual soils developed
on the andesites

Chapter 9 262
Marico Diabase Suite
Lithology - Residual soils - Tunnels and excavations

Chapter 10 277
Bushveld Complex: Rooiberg Group and Rustenburg Layered Suite
Lithology and structure - Rooiberg Group - Rustenburg Layered Suite

List of references 302
Index 309

Contents Volume 2
List of case histories 7
List of figures 9
List of tables 11
Preface and acknowledgements 13

Chapter 1 17
Bushveld Granites and Granophyres
Rashoop Granophyre Suite - Lebowa Granite Suite - Weathering characteristics -
Engineering characteristic

Chapter 2 28
Soutpansberg and Waterberg Groups and Related Rocks of the Mokolian Erathem
Distribution and regional lithology - Engineering characteristics - Sinclair Sequence -
Piriwiri, Deweras and Lomagundi Groups - Umkondo Group

Chapter 3 57
Damara Sequence, Gariep Complex and Nama Group
Engineering characteristics of Biotite Schist in the Windhoek area - the Pahl Fault in
Windhoek - use of Khomas Schist in road construction

Chapter 4 84
Malmesbury group and Other Pre-Cape Successions
Malmesbury Group - Kango Group - Kaaimans Group - Gamtoos Formation -
Engineering characteristics

Chapter 5 135
Cape Granite Suite
Engineering characteristics - Aggregate resources - Aggregate characteristics

Chapter 6 168
Cape Supergroup
Stratigraphy - Environment of deposition - Cape Fold Belt - Southern Coastal
Plain - Weathering and rock mass characteristics of the Table Mountain Group - Building
stones from the Table Mountain Group - Groundwater in the Table Mountain Group -
Rotary drilling problems - Weathering and rock mass characteristics of the Bokkeveld
Group - Road construction problems in the Bokkeveld Group - Failure of cut slopes in
the Bokkeveld Group - Witteberg Group

Chapter 7 224
Natal Group
Lithostratigraphy - Geological and geomorphological history - Engineering
characteristics - Engineering properties of the residual soils - Use of the rocks
and residual soils as construction materials

List of references 243
Index 248

Contents Volume 3
List of Case Histories 7
List of Figures 9
List of Tables 12
Preface and Acknowledgments 14

Chapter 1 17
Introduction
Structure of the Karoo basins - Palaecontology and geological history - Seismicity - Horizontal
stress in Karoo strata - Geomorphology - Climate

Chapter 2 33
Tillite and Other Strata of the Dwyka Formation
Distribution - Structure - Petrology - Weathering - Stability of cuttings in tillite - Construction
of dams on and with tillite - Tunnelling in tillite - Foundations on the Dwyka Formation - Use of
tillite as construction material

Chapter 3 57
Karoo Sandstone
Petrology - Slope stability - Tunnelling - Construction of dams - Use as concrete aggregate - Use
as road aggregate - Use as natural building stone - Residual Karoo sandstone

Chapter 4 107
Karoo Mudrock
Petrology - Breakdown on exposure - Swelling characteristic - Absorption of water - Density
and porosity - Strength - Road-building properties - Slope stability - Engineering classification -
Engineering characteristics of residual Karoo mudrocks - Recorded and predicted heaves and ap-
propriate foundation or structural treatment

Chapter 5 116
Coal
Stratigraphy and distribution - Petrology - Engineering properties - Coal mining - Mining meth-
ods - Locations of coal mines - Surface disturbance - Foundation conditions - Rehabilitation
after strip mining - Hydrological impact of surface coal mining - The use of old coal mines for
storage and waste-disposal

Chapter 6 151
Volcanic Rocks of the Karoo Sequence
Stratigraphy - Petrology - Weathering - Engineering properties - Use as construction materials -
Founding in soils residual from Karoo volcanics

Chapter 7 177
Karoo Dolerite
Distribution - Structure - Metamorphic effects of dolerite intrusion - Petrology - Strength of fresh
dolerite - Weathering of dolerite - Tunnelling - Use as concrete aggregate - Use in road construc-
tion - Foundation on residual dolerite - Dam construction

Chapter 8 210
Foundations for Major Structures in the Coalfields of the Vryheid Formation
Duvha power station - Arnot power station - Slaking characteristics of the mudstones at Tutuka
power station

Chapter 9 225
Five Further Case Histories
Orange - Fish tunnel - Drakensberg pumped-storage scheme - Driekloof dam - Railway tunnel in
Pietermaritzburg Shale Formation - Shaft at colliery near Standerton

List of references 299
Appendix 1 309
Notes on the use of certain terms
Appendix 2 311
Volume 2 errata
Index 313

Contents Volume 4
List of Case Histories 7
List of Figures 10
List of Tables 13
Preface and Acknowledgements 15

Chapter 1 19
Introduction
Pebble marker - Post-Gondwana geological history - Expansive soils - Soils with a collapsible
fabric - Dispersive soils

Chapter 2 34
Cretaceous Sediments
Uitenhage Group - Zululand Group - Engineering properties of Enon Conglomerate Formation -
Enon Conglomerate Formation as source of construction materials - Engineering properties of
sediments of Kirkwood and Sundays River Formations - Kirkwood and Sundays River Forma-
tions as sources of construction materials - Engineering properties of sediments of Zululand
Group - Sediments of Zululand Group as sources of construction materials

Chapter 3 57
Tertiary to Recent Coastal Deposits
Stratigraphy and distribution - Mo?ambique, Zululand and Natal costs - Coastline of eastern
and southern cape - Western Cape coast - Namaqualand and Namibian coasts - Use of coastal
sands for fine concrete aggregate

Chapter 4 108
Estuarine Deposits
Nature of the deposits - Deposits of Durban area - Deposits of Richards Bay area - Geotechnical
properties of the clays and silts - Geotechnical properties of the sands - Investigation in rapidly
alternating deposits

Chapter 5 154
Colluvium
Distribution - Engineering characteristics - Use as construction material

Chapter 6 174
Aeolian Deposits of the Interior
Stratigraphy and distribution - Nature of the sands - Particle size distribution and plasticity -
Collapsible fabric - Shear strength - Compaction characteristics - Construction on or with
aeolian sands

Chapter 7 188
Transported Sandy Soils of Mixed Origin
Origin - Distribution - Engineering properties - Engineering problems

Chapter 8 225
Alluvial and Lacustrine Deposits
Floodplain deposits- Alluvial fans - Lacustrine deposits - Organic alluvium - Dams on alluvium

Chapter 9 272
Pedological Profile Classes
The soil map- Description of pedological classes - Podzolic soils - Ferrallitic soils - Fersiallitic
soils - Black and red smectitic clays - Solonetzic and planosolic soils - Arenosols - Halomorphic
soils - Alluvial and weakly developed soils and other soils of low-lying areas - Hydromorphic soils
Weakly developed shallow soils - Weakly developed soils of arid areas - Lithosols and lithosolic
soils

Chapter 10 286
Pedocretes
Terminology - Age, thickness and rate of formation - Composition - Origin - Distribution
Description and classification for geotechnical purposes - Geotechnical aspects - Slope stability
and erosion - Foundations on pedocretes - Pedocretes in road construction - Use as building
blocks and concrete aggregate - Pedocretes in earth dam construction - Materials location -
Variability of performance

List of References 312
Appendix 323
Volume 3 Errata
Index 324