Reservoir Engineering - Guidelines for Practice

Table Of Contents

Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Part I. Conceptual and planning practice for reservoirs 1

Chapter 1. Introduction and philosophy of approach 3

Introduction 3

Background 3

Disciplines needed 4

Constraints on training and experience 5

The Engineering thread 6

Mode of work 8

The need for mutual understanding 9

The roles of empirical and theoretical methods 10

References 13

Chapter 2. Objectives 15

The purposes of reservoirs 15

The engineering planning of reservoirs 17

Plan of work 19

Reference 21

Chapter 3. Selection of potential dam sites and conceptual schemes 23

Appraisal of data and formulation of possible

projects 23

Prefeasibility studies 29

Choice of dam type 35

Choice of size of dam 42

References 44

Chapter 4. Investigation of selected sites and geological studies 45

Site investigations 45

Methods 47

Conclusion 61

References 61

Chapter 5. Hydraulic studies 63

Introduction 63

Past experience 64

Analytical methods 66

Computational models 67

Physical models 71

Bibliography 81

Chapter 6. Hydrological studies 83

Background 83

Deterministic methods 84

Flood studies 86

Droughts 97

References 99

Addendum to Chapter 6: Guidelines from the United States of America 100

Chapter 7. Spillways 101

Intensity of flood flow to be provided for 101

The effect of type of dam on type of spillway needed 105

Energy dispersal 111

References 115

Further reading 116

Chapter 8. River diversions during construction 117

Intensity of flood discharge to be provided for 117

Methods of river diversion 118

Closure of river diversions on completion 120

Chapter 9. Seismic loading 123

The relevance of seismic risk to dams in the UK 123

The Engineering Guide to Seismic Risk to Dams in the United Kingdom 128

Peak ground accelerations for design in relation to factors of safety and accelerations liable to be suffered 131

Case histories of seismic incidents 136

Conclusions from case histories on improving the earthquake resistance of dams 159

Conclusion 161

References 162

Further reading 163

Part II. Development practice for reservoirs 165

Chapter 10. Water conduits for reservoirs 167

Purposes 167

Types 167

Routing 174

Permissible velocities of flow 178

Tunnel lining 179

Steel lining in tunnels 181

Grouting in tunnels 182

Final tunnel cross section 182

References 183

Chapter 11. Tunnelling problems and excavation of shafts 185

Low stresses in rock surround 185

Two more case histories 191

Methods of excavating shafts 195

Concluding remarks on tunnelling problems 197

Reference 198

Chapter 12. Electro-mechanical equipment and controls 199

Introductory remarks 199

Turbines 200

Generators 207

Transformers 207

Main travelling cranes 208

Transmission systems 210

Hydraulic valves and gates 211

References 218

Chapter 13. Environmental considerations 219

Introduction 219

Overview of the arguments for more large reservoir projects 223

Dams and development - the World Commission on Dams 226

Environmental impact assessments 229

References 238

Chapter 14. Costs and benefits 241

General 241

Cost estimates 242

Principles of project appraisal 247

References 254

Chapter 15. Efficient management for irrigation 255

Introduction 255

The meaning of efficiency 256

Planning for efficiency and control 258

Basic criteria 261

Water requirements 261

Water distribution systems 263

Balancing storages 264

Sources of water supply 265

Analysis 266

Control 266

Forecasting 267

Planned water shortages 268

Final design and economic analysis 269

References 269

Chapter 16. Small hydropower 271

Introduction 271

Criteria for successful development 272

Sound planning and design 273

Multiple development 274

Operation at optimum load factor 275

Conjunctive operation 276

The needs for small hydropower 276

Different users 279

Classifying and selecting small hydro schemes 283

Conclusions 287

Further information 288

References 288

Chapter 17. Safety and inspection of reservoirs 289

Introduction 289

The Reservoirs Act 1975 291

Proposed changes 298

Reviews by panels of experts 299

Remedial works 300

References 303

Chapter 18. Operation and maintenance, monitoring and inspection 305

General 305

Final construction report 305

Operating and maintenance instructions 306

Monitoring and inspection 308

Training and staffing 310

Potential unforeseen human, mechanical and electronic problems 311

Investigation and solution of leakage problems observed during inspections 313

Other problems 315

References 316

Index 327