Assessment and Reclamation of Contaminated Land

Table Of Contents

Contents

The Extent of Contaminated Land Problems and the Scientific Response

Simon J. T. Pollard, Malcolm Lythgo and Raquel Duarte-Daiidson 1

1 The Origins of Contaminated Land Problems 1

2 The Extent of the Challenge 3

3 Developments in the Science Base 6

4 Conclusions 19

5 Acknowledgements 19

The New UK Contaminated Land Regime 21

Malcolm Lowe and Judith Lowe

1 Introduction 21

2 The Context for Part IIA 21

3 The Part IIA System 23

4 Dealing with 'Risk' 29

5 Making People Pay 35

6 Part IIA as a "Regulatory System' 36

7 The State of Play 42

8 What Next? 43

Identifying and Dealing with Contaminated Land 45

Mark Kibhlewhite

1 Introduction 45

2 Site Assessment 46

3 Risk Management 58

4 Measurement of Site Contaminants 60

5 Conclusions 63

Contaminated Land and the Link with Health 65

Andrew J. Kibble and Patrick J. Saunders

1 Introduction 65

2 Exposure 66

3 Health Studies 73

Contents

4 Case Studies

5 Conclusion 80 83

Human Health Risk Assessment: Guideline Values and Magic Numbers

C. Paul Nathanail 85

1 Land Contamination Policy 85

2 Risk Assessment 88

3 What Is a Guideline Value? 89

4 The Use of Guideline Values 93

5 The CLEA Model 96

6 The SNIFFER Framework 101

7 Conclusions 101

8 Acknowledgements 101

Ecological Risk Assessment under the New Contaminated Land Regime

Michael Quint 103

1 Background and Legal Context 103

2 Harm to Ecological Receptors 104

3 General Approach to the Assessment of Land Under the New Regime 105

4 Assessing Whether Significant Harm to Ecological Receptors Is Occurring 106

5 Assessing the Possibility of Significant Harm Occurring 107

6 The Environment Agency's Suggested Approach 109

7 Guideline Values 111

8 Comments and Discussion 113

Remediation Methods for Contaminated Sites

Peter Wood 115

1 Introduction 115

2 Summary of Remediation Approaches 116

3 Selected Innovative Approaches 129

4 Summary and Conclusions 139

Legal Liabilities and Insurance Aspects of Contaminated Land

Anthony J. Lennon 141

1 Introduction 141

2 Contaminated Land 141

3 Statutory Provisions in the UK 142

4 Sale of Land/Businesses 143

5 Principles of Insurance 144

6 History of Environmental Insurance 146

7 Land Owners and Environmental Liabilities 148

8 Pollution Liabilities for Contaminated Land Sites 148

9 Current Manufacturing Activities 149

Contents

10 Environmental Insurance 150

11 Environmental Consultants 154

12 Collateral Warranties 155

13 Contractors 156

14 An Example 157

15 Conclusion 159

Subject Index 161